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Prominent role in the development of pedagogical foundations of education played Johann Herbart (1776-1841), though his ideas were partially conservative. It is from this perspective, he found it necessary to suppress the children “wild playfulness”, using physical punishment, as well as to unrelenting supervision of their conduct and record their misdeeds in a special magazine – conduit.
With progressive-democratic attitudes developing pedagogical theory Disterveg German teacher Adolf (1790-1866). Particularly useful are his ideas on enhancing students’ learning activity, strengthening their independent work.
He was a follower of Pestalozzi and the basic principles of education considered prirodosoobraznost, cultural congruity and initiative.
Under Prirodosoobraznost he understood excitement innate instincts of the child in accordance with laid in it the desire for development. Put forward his principle of cultural conformity meant that education should be considered not only from the nature of the child, but also with the level of culture of the time and country. The independent activity Disterveg considered a crucial factor in determining the identity of a person, his behavior.
He added the idea of developing training Pestalozzi, formulated 33 of the law and regulations.
12. FORMATION OF PEDAGOGY IN RUSSIA
Actively developed the idea of education in Russian pedagogy. It should be noted that in Russia for a long time to open the school. Configuration information for opening a school for 300 children in Novgorod in 1030
Has been very fruitful theoretical and practical activities in the field of pedagogy native of Belarus Simeon of Polotsk (1629-1680). In 1664, it was opened with the Spassky Monastery in Moscow School of Slavonic-Greek-Latin languages. In 1667, he was appointed tutor and taught the royal children Tsarevich Alexei, Theodore and Princess Sophia and we promise you won’t regret it. Under his watch, brought Peter I. S.Polotsky drafted Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, which was opened in 1687 after his death, and greatly expanded the higher education in the Russian state. S.Polotsky considered the main factors of education example of parents and teachers, as well as the environment. He railed against the theory of “innate ideas” that supposedly defined the development of children, and attached great importance to education, which, in his opinion, should be directed to the formation of the senses and the mind of man.
A great contribution to the development of Russian pedagogical thought was made by MV Lomonosov (1711-1765). He created a series of instructional books: “Rhetoric” (1748), “Russian Grammar” (1755), etc.
Its mark in the Russian pedagogy left N.I.Novikov (1744-1818). He published the first in the Russian magazine “Children’s reading for the heart and mind” and educational products led the fight against serfdom. He believed that children should be brought up to respect labor, kindness and compassion. In the article “On the education and instruction of children. Generally useful for sharing knowledge and general welfare” N.I.Novikov for the first time in Russian literature teacher announced the pedagogy of science.
Since the XVIII century. begins training teachers. In 1732, in particular, opened the first normal school in Germany (g.Shtettin). In 1779 established pedagogical (teacher) Seminary at Moscow University, and in 1804 began with the opening of a Russian educational institutions. Becomes necessary teaching pedagogy as the academic discipline, and in 1840 in the Main Pedagogical Institute opens Department of Pedagogy.
The original pedagogical ideas put forward Leo Tolstoy, who in his estate, Yasnaya Polyana organized for primary school children of peasants and embodied there my thoughts about the training and education. He paid great attention to the development of children’s creative independence, sought to embody the theory of “free education”, has created a textbook for elementary school “ABC.”
In Russia, the whole system has developed a didactic teacher Konstantin Ushinsky (1824-1870). The core of its educational system were demands for democratization of education and training, the idea of public education, the recognition of the creative power of the working people and their rights to education. Ushinsky said: “If the pedagogy wants to educate people in all respects, it must first recognize him in all respects.” He showed that to know a man in all respects – it means to study the physical and mental characteristics. Ushinsky dreamed of this time, when the teacher is not only a teacher but also a psychologist. In his major work, “The man as the subject of education. Educational anthropology Experience” (1868-1869) presented an analysis of the psychological mechanisms of attention, interest, memory, imagination, emotions, will, thought, proved the necessity of taking them into account in the process of learning. Particular attention is paid to the impact of unintended education, the influence of the social environment, “Zeitgeist”, the specifics of culture and progressive social ideals of a particular society at a specific historical period.
The purpose of education, according to Ushinsky – forming an active and creative individual training rights to physical and mental labor as the highest form of human activity. Assuming the role of religion in shaping public morality positive, he performed at the same time for the independence of science and religion from schools, acted against the leading role of the clergy in the school.
Problems of moral education in Ushinsky presented as a socio-historical. In moral education, he assigned one of the main places of patriotism that excludes chauvinism, requires nurturing of civic duty “to express a bold word of truth” against oppression and violence. His system of moral education of children excluded authoritarianism, it was built on the power of positive example, on a reasonable activity of the child. He demanded that the teachers of the active love of man, creating an atmosphere of camaraderie. (This is where the roots of the pedagogy of cooperation.)
New pedagogical idea Ushinsky was staged in front of the teacher to teach the students to study the problem: “… should be transferred to the student not only a certain knowledge, but to develop in him the desire and ability to own, without a teacher to acquire new knowledge.”
Ushinsky approved the principle of bringing up training, which is the unity of teaching and education: “Education should not act on mere increase the stock of knowledge, but also on a person’s beliefs.” Thus, K. D.Ushinsky is considered to be the founder of the scientific pedagogy in Russia.
Pedagogical principles KDUshinskogo
1. Education should be tailored to the age and psychological characteristics of the child. It should be feasible and consistent.
2. Education should be based on the principle of visual
3. The course of training from the concrete to the abstract, to abstract, from ideas and thoughts – is natural and is based on sound psychological laws of human nature.
4. Education must develop the mental strength and the ability of students and also to provide the necessary life skills.